## Learning Support for Statistical Reasoning - MDE 55 at Patrick & Henry Community College

https://courses.vccs.edu/colleges/phcc/courses/MDE55-LearningSupportforStatisticalReasoning

Effective: 2020-01-01

### Course Description

Provides support to ensure success for students co-enrolled in Statistical Reasoning (MTH 155). Course will review foundational topics through direct instruction, guided practice, and individualized support.

Lecture 3 credits. Total 3 hours per week.

3 credits

The course outline below was developed as part of a statewide standardization process.

### General Course Purpose

This course provides support to ensure student success with the MTH 155 objectives.

### Course Prerequisites/Corequisites

Corequisite: MTH 155

### Course Objectives

- Communication
- Interpret and communicate quantitative information and mathematical and statistical concepts using language appropriate to the context and intended audience
- Use appropriate statistical language in oral, written, and graphical terms.
- Read and interpret graphs and descriptive statistics.
- Problem Solving
- Make sense of problems, develop strategies to find solutions, and persevere in solving them.
- Understand what statistical question is being addressed, use appropriate strategies to answer the question of interest, and state conclusions using appropriate statistical language.
- Reasoning
- Reason, model, and draw conclusions or make decisions with quantitative information.
- Use probability, graphical, and numerical summaries of data, confidence intervals, and hypothesis testing methods to make decisions.
- Use probability, graphical, and numerical summaries of data, confidence intervals, and hypothesis testing methods to make decisions.
- Evaluation
- Critique and evaluate quantitative arguments that utilize mathematical, statistical, and quantitative information.
- Identify errors such as inappropriate sampling methods, sources of bias, and potentially confounding variables, in both observational and experimental studies.
- Identify mathematical or statistical errors, inconsistencies, or missing information in arguments.
- Technology
- Use appropriate technology in a given context.
- Use some form of spreadsheet application to organize information and make repeated calculations using simple formulas and statistical functions.
- Use technology to calculate descriptive statistics and test hypotheses.
- Graphical and Numerical Data Analysis
- Identify the difference between quantitative and qualitative data
- Identify the difference between discrete and continuous quantitative data
- Construct and interpret graphical displays of data, including (but not limited to) box plots, line charts, histograms, and bar charts
- Construct and interpret frequency tables
- Compute measures of center (mean, median, mode), measures of variation, (range, interquartile range, standard deviation), and measures of position (percentiles, quartiles, standard scores)
- Sampling and Experimental Design
- Recognize a representative sample and describe its importance
- Identify methods of sampling
- Explain the differences between observational studies and experiments
- Recognize and explain the key concepts in experiments, including the selection of treatment and control groups, the placebo effect, and blinding
- Probability Concepts
- Describe the difference between relative frequency and theoretical probabilities and use each method to calculate probabilities of events
- Calculate probabilities of composite events using the complement rule, the addition rule, and the multiplication rule.
- Use the normal distribution to calculate probabilities
- Identify when the use of the normal distribution is appropriate.
- Recognize or restate the Central Limit Theorem and use it as appropriate.
- Statistical Inference
- Explain the difference between point and interval estimates.
- Construct and interpret confidence intervals for population means and proportions.
- Interpret the confidence level associated with an interval estimate.
- Conduct hypothesis tests for population means and proportions.
- Interpret the meaning of both rejecting and failing to reject the null hypothesis.
- Use a p-value to reach a conclusion in a hypothesis test.
- Identify the difference between practical significance and statistical significance.
- Correlation and Regression
- Analyze scatterplots for patterns, linearity, and influential points
- Determine the equation of a least-squares regression line and interpret its slope and intercept.
- Calculate and interpret the correlation coefficient and the coefficient of determination.
- Categorical Data Analysis
- Conduct a chi-squared test for independence between rows and columns of a two-way contingency table.

### Major Topics to be Included

- Arithmetic and order of operations
- Operations with fractions, percentages, and decimals
- Exponents
- Formulas
- Units and measurement
- Simplifying algebraic expressions and solving linear equations
- Using technology including calculators and spreadsheet software